Release 19
(Aug 26, 2023)
Animal Trait Correlation Database
Genetic and phenotypic trait correlation studies have been conducted for decades since Hazel proposed the methods in 1943 [1]. A genetic correlation is the proportion of shared variance between two traits that is due to genetic causes; a phenotypic correlation is the degree to which two traits co-vary among individuals in a population. In the genomics era, while gene expression, genetic association, and network analysis provide unprecedented means to decode the genetic basis of complex phenotypes, it is important to recognize the possible effects genetic progress in one trait can have on other traits. This database is designed to collect all published livestock genetic/phenotypic trait correlation data, aimed at facilitating genetic network analysis or systems biology studies.

As of the current Release, a total of 29,947 correlation data on 812 base traits and 679 trait variants; 5,458 heritability data on 981 base traits and 698 trait variants, in 6 livestock animal species have been curated from 550 publications.

Cattle Chicken Goat Horse Pig Sheep
Release 19: Curated Data
Species Correlations Heritability
CountTraits CountTraits
Cattle 14,839355 2,636407
Chicken 2,05381 400107
Goat 83442 7222
Horse 20927 13154
Pig 9,308230 1,781279
Sheep 2,70477 438112
Sum29,947812 5,458981
Last 30 days visitor activities
  • Web visits: 80,132 (hits)
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  • Correlation by unique trait pairs by species
    Species Corr.Types CattleChickenGoatHorsePigSheepSUM
    Environment  245 



    Genetic  3,200 
    Phenotypic  3,583 
    Residual  346 


    Note: Bold numbers represent counts of correlation trait pairs;
    In parenthesis are counts of multiple correlations reported.
    Heritability data reported by species
    # ReportsCattle Traits
    99Body weight
    94Milk yield
    59Milk fat yield
    58Subcutaneous fat thickness
    58Milk protein yield
    57Longissimus muscle area
    56Average daily gain
    50Somatic cell score
    43Marbling score
    41Carcass weight
    39Milk protein percentage
    39Milk fat percentage
    34Dry matter intake
    32Scrotal circumference
    30Residual feed intake
    30Body height
    21Interval to first estrus after calving
    20Metabolic body weight
    19Shear force
    19Age at first calving
    19Clinical mastitis
    18Calving to conception interval
    18Sperm motility
    18Calving interval
    18Fat thickness at the 12th rib
    16Udder cleft
    15Udder attachment
    15Milk lactose yield
    15Intramuscular fat
    15Interval from first to last insemination
    15Udder depth
    15Dressing percentage
    14Yield grade
    14Body depth
    14Body condition score
    14Conformation score
    13Milk lactose content
    13Semen volume
    13Milk palmitic acid content
    13Milk myristic acid content
    13Milk oleic acid content
    13Udder height
    13Milk stearic acid content
    12Milk capric acid content
    12Milk lauric acid content
    12Milk saturated fatty acid content
    12Milk caprylic acid content
    12Rump width
    12Meat color
    12Non-return rate
    12Gestation length
    11Milk unsaturated fatty acid content
    11M. paratuberculosis susceptibility
    11Feet and leg conformation
    # ReportsChicken Traits
    40Body weight
    30Egg weight
    28Egg number
    14Eggshell strength
    12Abdominal fat weight
    10Abdominal fat percentage
    9Shank length
    9Eggshell thickness
    8Age at first egg
    7Albumen height
    7Eggshell shape
    7Feed conversion ratio
    7Feed intake
    6Residual feed intake
    6Liver weight
    6Average daily gain
    6Meat color
    6Eggshell color
    5Breast muscle weight
    5Breast muscle percentage
    4Gizzard weight
    4Blood bile acid level
    4Comb height
    4Triglyceride level
    4Haugh units
    4Blood albumin to globulin ratio
    4Blood globulin level
    4Carcass weight
    4Blood uric acid level
    4Eggshell stiffness
    4Heart weight
    3Blood alanine transaminase level
    3HDL cholesterol level
    3Wooden breast
    3Blood aspartate transaminase level
    3HDL/LDL ratio
    3Shank circumference
    3Cholesterol level
    3LDL cholesterol level
    3Blood total protein level
    3Liver percentage
    3Blood creatinine level
    3Blood gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase level
    3Skin color
    3Blood albumin level
    3Glucose level
    3AST to ALT ratio
    3White striping
    2Proventriculus weight
    2Yolk color
    2Intramuscular fat percentage
    2Fowl typhoid susceptibility
    2Body weight gain
    2Deep pectoral myopathy
    2Liver fat percentage
    2Drumstick and thigh muscle percentage
    # ReportsGoat Traits
    31Body weight
    13Average daily gain
    8Kleiber ratio
    2Teat number
    1Milk fat yield
    1Fore udder attachment
    1Rear udder arch
    1Rear leg placement - side view
    1Conformation score
    1Milk yield
    1Medial suspensory ligament
    1Rear udder height
    1Rump angle
    1Rump width
    1Teat diameter
    1Milk protein yield
    1Somatic cell score
    1Udder depth
    1Teat placement
    # ReportsHorse Traits
    12Insect bite hypersensitivity
    12Recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis
    8Tendon injury
    8Recurrent uveitis
    7Bone fracture
    5Strongyle fecal egg count
    4Suspensory ligament injury
    4Withers height
    3Strongyle infection
    3Sperm progressive motility
    2Sperm count
    2Skinfold thickness
    2Walk score
    2Hair shaft diameter
    2Hoof conformation
    2Semen volume
    2Sperm concentration
    2Body condition score
    2Croup height
    2Conformation score
    2chronic progressive lymphedema
    2Trot score
    2Equine sarcoids
    2Gestation length
    2Leg conformation
    1Leptin level
    1Plasma protein level
    1Blood lactate level
    1Aspartate aminotransferase activity
    1Blood glucose level
    1neuroaxonal dystrophy
    1Blood creatinine level
    1ACTH level
    1Lymphocyte number
    1Red blood cell number
    1Creatine kinase level
    1Insulin level
    1White blood cell number
    1Triglyceride level
    1Blood adiponectin level
    1Neutrophil number
    1Chest circumference
    1Cannon bone circumference
    1Uric acid level
    1Number of progressively motile sperm
    1Blood non-esterified fatty acid level
    1hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia
    1Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy
    1Lactate dehydrogenase level
    # ReportsPig Traits
    128Total number born alive
    77Meat color
    74Litter size
    58Average daily gain
    52Number weaned
    47Average backfat thickness
    31Litter weight, total
    29Muscle pH
    28Feed intake
    24Number of stillborn
    22Feed conversion ratio
    21Body weight
    21Subcutaneous fat thickness
    20Sperm abnormality rate
    19Linoleic acid content
    19Oleic acid content
    19Teat number
    19Palmitic acid content
    19Longissimus muscle area
    19Stearic acid content
    18Sperm motility
    18Palmitoleic acid content
    17Days to 100 kg
    17Time spent in feeder
    17Myristic acid content
    16Polyunsaturated fatty acid content
    16Saturated fatty acid content
    16Intramuscular fat content
    16Residual feed intake
    16Monounsaturated fatty acid content
    15Number of mummified pigs
    15Lean meat percentage
    14Semen volume
    14Sperm concentration
    13Longissimus muscle depth
    12Sperm per ejaculate
    12Linolenic acid content
    12Carcass length
    12Carcass weight (hot)
    11Sperm progressive motility
    10Eicosadienoic acid content
    10Drip loss
    10Arachidonic acid content
    10Arachidic acid content
    9Number of visits to feeder
    9cis-11-Eicosenoic acid content
    8Omega-6 fatty acid content
    8Omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio
    8Average feeding rate
    8Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid content
    8Omega-3 fatty acid content
    8Age at first farrowing
    8Water holding capacity
    8Conformation score
    7Cooking loss
    7Chest circumference
    7Eicosadienoic acid to linoleic acid ratio
    # ReportsSheep Traits
    96Body weight
    41Average daily gain
    28Kleiber ratio
    18Residual feed intake
    17Feed conversion ratio
    10Mean fiber diameter
    9Fecal egg count
    9Greasy fleece weight
    9Staple length
    7Sperm motility
    7Growth efficiency
    7Relative growth rate
    6Sperm concentration
    6Somatic cell score
    6Semen volume
    5Backfat at 12th/13th ribs
    5Fiber diameter coefficient of variance
    5Longissimus muscle depth
    5Longissimus muscle area
    5Milk Yield
    5Fleece yield
    4Teat size
    4udder attachment
    4Dressing percentage
    4udder depth
    4Teat placement
    4Feed intake
    3Fiber diameter standard deviation
    3Clean fleece weight
    3Meat color
    3Hot carcass weight
    3Staple strength
    2Longissimus muscle width
    2Fiber curvature
    2Backfat at GR site
    2Milk protein yield
    2Nematodirus FEC
    2Total lambs born
    2Wool color
    2Fecal oocyst count
    2Milk protein percentage
    2Milk fat yield
    2Subcutaneous fat thickness
    2Time spent in feeder
    1Milk protein content
    1Hind leg bone weight
    1Topside weight
    1Breech wrinkle
    1Meat saturated fatty acid content
    1Meat linoleic acid content
    1Cooking loss
    1Wool crimp
    1Loin fat weight
    1Meat omega-3 fatty acid content
    1Tail length
    1Meat linolenic acid content
    New Data: If you found correlation data that has not been included in the current release, please either (1) register for a curator account to directly input them (see "Database Curators / Editors" below), or (2) inform our Bioinformatics Team so that we can include your data for curation.
    Database Curators / Editors: The CorrDB is open to the public for data entry and update. By having a curator account on the CorrDB, you will be granted privileges to input and edit the database entries.
    Questions and Answers: Frequently asked questions and answers to address the questions raised with regard to the design, usage, application, utilities, new developments, and other related issues in the development of CorrDB.
    Data downloads:
    Release 19 data:
    ‣ tab delimited
    ‣ plain text
    ‣ gzip compressed
    Correlation data: Cattle
    Correlation data: Chicken
    Correlation data: Goat
    Correlation data: Horse
    Correlation data: Pig
    Correlation data: Sheep
    Heritability data: Cattle
    Heritability data: Chicken
    Heritability data: Goat
    Heritability data: Horse
    Heritability data: Pig
    Heritability data: Sheep


    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2022). Bringing the Animal QTLdb and CorrDB into the future: meeting new challenges and providing updated services. Nucleic Acids Research, Volume 50, Issue D1, Pages D956–D961. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkab1116

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2020). An Update on Database Growth and Improvements of Animal QTLdb and CorrDB. Plant & Animal Genomes XXVII Conference, January 11-15, 2020. Town & Country Convention Center, San Diego, CA. (January 11-15, 2020).

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2019). Building a livestock genetic and genomic information knowledgebase through integrative developments of Animal QTLdb and CorrDB. Nucleic Acids Research, Volume 47, Issue D1, 8 January 2019, Pages D701–D710. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gky1084

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2018). Development of Animal QTLdb and CorrDB: Resynthesizing Big Data to Improve Meta-analysis of Genetic and Genomic Information. The 11th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (WCGALP). New Zealand, February 11-16, 2018.

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2018). Animal QTLdb and CorrDB updates: integrative development of genetics/genomics databases and tools to meet new challenges. Plant & Animal Genomes XXVI Conference, January 13-17, 2018. Town & Country Convention Center, San Diego, CA.

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Dinesh Kumar, and James Reecy. (2013). CorrDB: A livestock animal genetic/phenotypic trait correlation database. Plant & Animal Genomes XX Conference, January 11-16, 2013. Town & Country Convention Center, San Diego, CA.|/icons/links/PAG_logo.png|2

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