Release 21
(Apr 29, 2024)
Animal Trait Correlation Database
Genetic and phenotypic trait correlation studies have been conducted for decades since Hazel proposed the methods in 1943. A genetic correlation is the proportion of shared variance between two traits that is due to genetic causes; a phenotypic correlation is the degree to which two traits co-vary among individuals in a population. In the genomics era, while gene expression, genetic association, and network analysis provide unprecedented means to decode the genetic basis of complex phenotypes, it is important to recognize the possible effects genetic progress in one trait can have on other traits. This database is designed to collect all published livestock genetic/phenotypic trait correlation data, aimed at facilitating genetic network analysis or systems biology studies.

As of the current Release, a total of 37,017 correlation data on 862 base traits and 992 trait variants; 6,268 heritability data on 1,083 base traits and 976 trait variants, in 6 livestock animal species have been curated from 628 publications.

Cattle Chicken Goat Horse Pig Sheep
Release 21: Curated Data
Species Correlations Heritability
CountTraits CountTraits
Cattle 15,199351 2,723404
Chicken 2,37185 496141
Goat 3,69185 46679
Horse 20927 13154
Pig 12,147237 1,915286
Sheep 3,40077 537119
Sum37,017862 6,2681,083
Last 30 days visitor activities
  • Web visits: 64,697 (hits)
  • Downloads: 1054.709(MB)
  • Correlation by unique trait pairs by species
    Species Corr.Types CattleChickenGoatHorsePigSheepSUM
    Environment  251 



    Genetic  3,180 
    Phenotypic  3,561 
    Residual  349 

    Note: Bold numbers represent counts of correlation trait pairs;
    In parenthesis are counts of multiple correlations reported.
    Heritability data reported by species
    # ReportsCattle Traits
    104Body weight
    103Milk yield
    86Subcutaneous fat thickness
    63Longissimus muscle area
    59Milk fat yield
    58Milk protein yield
    57Average daily gain
    50Somatic cell score
    46Marbling score
    44Milk protein percentage
    44Carcass weight
    44Milk fat percentage
    35Dry matter intake
    33Scrotal circumference
    32Residual feed intake
    30Body height
    23Shear force
    21Age at first calving
    21Interval to first estrus after calving
    21Metabolic body weight
    20Clinical mastitis
    20Calving interval
    19Calving to conception interval
    18Sperm motility
    18Intramuscular fat
    18Body condition score
    17Teat placement
    16Udder cleft
    15Udder attachment
    15Milk lactose yield
    15Interval from first to last insemination
    15Udder depth
    15Dressing percentage
    14Milk lactose content
    14Yield grade
    14Body depth
    14Conformation score
    13Semen volume
    13Body circumference
    13Meat color
    13Milk palmitic acid content
    13Milk myristic acid content
    13Milk oleic acid content
    13Udder height
    13Milk stearic acid content
    13Gestation length
    12Milk capric acid content
    12Milk lauric acid content
    12Feet and leg conformation
    12Milk saturated fatty acid content
    12Milk caprylic acid content
    12Rump width
    12Inseminations per conception
    12Non-return rate
    # ReportsChicken Traits
    64Body weight
    33Egg number
    33Egg weight
    14Eggshell strength
    14Abdominal fat weight
    13Abdominal fat percentage
    11Age at first egg
    10Shank length
    10Carcass weight
    9Eggshell thickness
    8Average daily gain
    7Albumen height
    7Eggshell shape
    7Breast muscle weight
    7Feed conversion ratio
    7Feed intake
    6Residual feed intake
    6Gizzard weight
    6Meat color
    6Liver weight
    6Eggshell color
    5Breast muscle percentage
    4Comb height
    4Triglyceride level
    4Shank circumference
    4Blood globulin level
    4Eggshell stiffness
    4Heart weight
    4Blood bile acid level
    4Haugh units
    4Blood albumin to globulin ratio
    4Blood uric acid level
    3Blood alanine transaminase level
    3Wooden breast
    3Body weight gain
    3Blood aspartate transaminase level
    3HDL/LDL ratio
    3LDL cholesterol level
    3Blood creatinine level
    3Blood gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase level
    3AST to ALT ratio
    3HDL cholesterol level
    3Eggshell cuticle coverage
    3Intestine length
    3Cholesterol level
    3Muscle pH
    3Blood total protein level
    3Liver percentage
    3Skin color
    3Blood albumin level
    3Glucose level
    3White striping
    2Fowl typhoid susceptibility
    2Drumstick weight
    2Drumstick and thigh muscle percentage
    2Skin weight
    # ReportsGoat Traits
    75Body weight
    35Milk yield
    31Average daily gain
    26Kleiber ratio
    15Milk protein yield
    15Milk fat yield
    14Body height
    13Body circumference
    13Kidding interval
    13Body length
    10Milk fat percentage
    10Milk protein percentage
    7Age at first kidding
    7Udder attachment
    7Milk protein-to-fat ratio
    6Fecal egg count
    6Somatic cell score
    5Milk protein content
    5Milk fat content
    4Milk conjugated linoleic acid content
    4Milk octadecenoic acid content
    4Sperm motility
    4Milk monounsaturated fatty acid content
    4Milk capric acid content
    4Milk butyric acid content
    4Milk lauric acid content
    4Medial suspensory ligament
    4Milk omega-6 fatty acid content
    4Milk unsaturated fatty acid content
    4Milk polyunsaturated fatty acid content
    4Milk saturated fatty acid content
    4Milk sum of C13:0 to C17:0 fatty acid content
    4Milk palmitic acid content
    4Milk myristic acid content
    4Milk caprylic acid content
    4Teat placement
    4Milk sum of C4:0 to C10:0 fatty acid content
    4Milk caproic acid content
    4Milk omega-3 fatty acid content
    4Milk stearic acid content
    3Marbling score
    3Teat diameter
    3Milk solids yield
    3Milk lactose yield
    3Body condition score
    3Teat angle
    3Teat shape
    3Rear udder height
    2Somatic cell count
    2Lactation persistency
    2Lactation length
    2Teat length
    2Teat number
    2Sperm concentration
    2Coat color
    2Sperm count
    # ReportsHorse Traits
    12Insect bite hypersensitivity
    12Recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis
    8Tendon injury
    8Recurrent uveitis
    7Bone fracture
    5Strongyle fecal egg count
    4Suspensory ligament injury
    4Withers height
    3Strongyle infection
    3Sperm progressive motility
    2Sperm count
    2Skinfold thickness
    2Walk score
    2Hair shaft diameter
    2Hoof conformation
    2Semen volume
    2Sperm concentration
    2Body condition score
    2Croup height
    2Conformation score
    2chronic progressive lymphedema
    2Trot score
    2Equine sarcoids
    2Gestation length
    2Leg conformation
    1Leptin level
    1Plasma protein level
    1Blood lactate level
    1Aspartate aminotransferase activity
    1Blood glucose level
    1Blood creatinine level
    1ACTH level
    1Lymphocyte number
    1Red blood cell number
    1Creatine kinase level
    1Insulin level
    1White blood cell number
    1Triglyceride level
    1Blood adiponectin level
    1Neutrophil number
    1Chest circumference
    1Cannon bone circumference
    1Uric acid level
    1Number of progressively motile sperm
    1Blood non-esterified fatty acid level
    1hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia
    1Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy
    1Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy/degenerative myeloencephalopathy
    1Lactate dehydrogenase level
    # ReportsPig Traits
    128Total number born alive
    92Meat color
    90Subcutaneous fat thickness
    74Litter size
    58Average daily gain
    54Number weaned
    31Litter weight, total
    31Muscle pH
    28Teat number
    28Feed intake
    24Number of stillborn
    24Feed conversion ratio
    23Body weight
    23Longissimus muscle area
    21Longissimus muscle depth
    20Sperm abnormality rate
    19Linoleic acid content
    19Oleic acid content
    19Palmitic acid content
    19Stearic acid content
    18Sperm motility
    18Body circumference
    18Palmitoleic acid content
    17Days to 100 kg
    17Time spent in feeder
    17Intramuscular fat content
    17Myristic acid content
    16Polyunsaturated fatty acid content
    16Saturated fatty acid content
    16Residual feed intake
    16Monounsaturated fatty acid content
    16Lean meat percentage
    15Number of mummified pigs
    14Semen volume
    14Sperm concentration
    14Carcass weight (hot)
    13Carcass length
    12Sperm per ejaculate
    12Body length
    12Linolenic acid content
    11Sperm progressive motility
    11Drip loss
    11Body height
    10Cannon bone circumference
    10Eicosadienoic acid content
    10Arachidonic acid content
    10Arachidic acid content
    9Number of visits to feeder
    9cis-11-Eicosenoic acid content
    8Cooking loss
    8Omega-6 fatty acid content
    8Omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio
    8Average feeding rate
    8Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid content
    8Omega-3 fatty acid content
    8Age at first farrowing
    8Water holding capacity
    # ReportsSheep Traits
    136Body weight
    47Average daily gain
    30Kleiber ratio
    18Residual feed intake
    17Feed conversion ratio
    13Fecal egg count
    12Subcutaneous fat thickness
    10Mean fiber diameter
    9Sperm motility
    9Meat color
    9Greasy fleece weight
    9Staple length
    7Sperm concentration
    7Growth efficiency
    7Semen volume
    7Relative growth rate
    7Longissimus muscle depth
    6Somatic cell score
    6Scrotal circumference
    5Milk yield
    5Fiber diameter coefficient of variance
    5Longissimus muscle area
    5Fleece yield
    4Teat size
    4Shear force
    4udder attachment
    4Dressing percentage
    4udder depth
    4Teat placement
    4Feed intake
    3Body circumference
    3Body height
    3Fiber diameter standard deviation
    3Body length
    3Muscle pH
    3Clean fleece weight
    3Hot carcass weight
    3Staple strength
    2Cooking loss
    2Longissimus muscle width
    2Fiber curvature
    2Milk protein yield
    2Total lambs born
    2Blood total protein level
    2Wool color
    2Fecal oocyst count
    2Milk yield persistency
    2intramuscular fat amount
    2Milk protein percentage
    2Milk fat yield
    2Body condition score
    2Time spent in feeder
    2Footrot susceptibility
    2somatic cell count
    1Milk protein content
    1M. paratuberculosis antibody titer
    New Data: If you found correlation data that has not been included in the current release, please either (1) register for a curator account to directly input them (see "Database Curators / Editors" below), or (2) inform our Bioinformatics Team so that we can include your data for curation.
    Database Curators / Editors: The CorrDB is open to the public for data entry and update. By having a curator account on the CorrDB, you will be granted privileges to input and edit the database entries.
    Questions and Answers: Frequently asked questions and answers to address the questions raised with regard to the design, usage, application, utilities, new developments, and other related issues in the development of CorrDB.
    Data downloads:
    ( Release 21 )
    ‣ tab delimited
    ‣ plain text
    ‣ gzip compressed
    Correlation data: Cattle
    Correlation data: Chicken
    Correlation data: Goat
    Correlation data: Horse
    Correlation data: Pig
    Correlation data: Sheep
    Heritability data: Cattle
    Heritability data: Chicken
    Heritability data: Goat
    Heritability data: Horse
    Heritability data: Pig
    Heritability data: Sheep


    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2022). Bringing the Animal QTLdb and CorrDB into the future: meeting new challenges and providing updated services. Nucleic Acids Research, Volume 50, Issue D1, Pages D956–D961. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkab1116

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2020). An Update on Database Growth and Improvements of Animal QTLdb and CorrDB. Plant & Animal Genomes XXVII Conference, January 11-15, 2020. Town & Country Convention Center, San Diego, CA. (January 11-15, 2020).

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2019). Building a livestock genetic and genomic information knowledgebase through integrative developments of Animal QTLdb and CorrDB. Nucleic Acids Research, Volume 47, Issue D1, 8 January 2019, Pages D701–D710. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gky1084

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2018). Development of Animal QTLdb and CorrDB: Resynthesizing Big Data to Improve Meta-analysis of Genetic and Genomic Information. The 11th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (WCGALP). New Zealand, February 11-16, 2018.

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2018). Animal QTLdb and CorrDB updates: integrative development of genetics/genomics databases and tools to meet new challenges. Plant & Animal Genomes XXVI Conference, January 13-17, 2018. Town & Country Convention Center, San Diego, CA.

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Dinesh Kumar, and James Reecy. (2013). CorrDB: A livestock animal genetic/phenotypic trait correlation database. Plant & Animal Genomes XX Conference, January 11-16, 2013. Town & Country Convention Center, San Diego, CA.|/icons/links/PAG_logo.png|2

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