Release 18
(Apr 26, 2023)
Animal Trait Correlation Database
Genetic and phenotypic trait correlation studies have been conducted for decades since Hazel proposed the methods in 1943 [1]. A genetic correlation is the proportion of shared variance between two traits that is due to genetic causes; a phenotypic correlation is the degree to which two traits co-vary among individuals in a population. In the genomics era, while gene expression, genetic association, and network analysis provide unprecedented means to decode the genetic basis of complex phenotypes, it is important to recognize the possible effects genetic progress in one trait can have on other traits. This database is designed to collect all published livestock genetic/phenotypic trait correlation data, aimed at facilitating genetic network analysis or systems biology studies.

As of the current Release, a total of 27,957 correlation data on 811 base traits and 406 trait variants; 5,149 heritability data on 974 base traits and 395 trait variants, in 6 livestock animal species have been curated from 520 publications.

Cattle Chicken Goat Horse Pig Sheep
Release 18: Curated Data
Species Correlations Heritability
CountTraits CountTraits
Cattle 14,055356 2,532410
Chicken 2,03781 397108
Goat 31132 52
Horse 20927 13154
Pig 9,100238 1,715286
Sheep 2,24577 369114
Sum27,957811 5,149974
Last 30 days visitor activities
  • Web visits: 142,704 (hits)
  • Downloads: 1637.519(MB)
  • Correlation by unique trait pairs by species
    Species Corr.Types CattleChickenGoatHorsePigSheepSUM
    Environment  245 


    Genetic  3,112 
    Phenotypic  3,378 
    Residual  348 

    Note: Bold numbers represent counts of correlation trait pairs;
    In parenthesis are counts of multiple correlations reported.
    Heritability data reported by species
    # ReportsCattle Traits
    97Body weight
    70Milk yield
    56Milk fat yield
    56Average daily gain
    55Subcutaneous fat thickness
    55Longissimus muscle area
    55Milk protein yield
    49Somatic cell score
    41Marbling score
    40Carcass weight
    38Milk protein percentage
    38Milk fat percentage
    32Dry matter intake
    32Scrotal circumference
    28Residual feed intake
    28Body height
    21Interval to first estrus after calving
    19Age at first calving
    19Clinical mastitis
    18Shear force
    18Calving to conception interval
    18Sperm motility
    18Calving interval
    18Fat thickness at the 12th rib
    18Metabolic body weight
    15Interval from first to last insemination
    15Udder cleft
    15Dressing percentage
    14Udder attachment
    14Intramuscular fat
    14Yield grade
    14Udder depth
    13Milk lactose content
    13Semen volume
    13Milk palmitic acid content
    13Milk myristic acid content
    13Milk oleic acid content
    13Conformation score
    13Milk stearic acid content
    13Gestation length
    12Milk capric acid content
    12Milk lauric acid content
    12Milk saturated fatty acid content
    12Milk lactose yield
    12Milk caprylic acid content
    12Body condition score
    12Non-return rate
    12Udder height
    11Milk unsaturated fatty acid content
    11M. paratuberculosis susceptibility
    11Feet and leg conformation
    11Dairy form
    11Kidney, pelvic, and heart fat percentage
    11Sperm concentration
    # ReportsChicken Traits
    40Body weight
    30Egg weight
    28Egg number
    14Eggshell strength
    12Abdominal fat weight
    10Abdominal fat percentage
    9Shank length
    9Eggshell thickness
    8Age at first egg
    7Albumen height
    7Eggshell shape
    7Feed conversion ratio
    7Feed intake
    6Residual feed intake
    6Liver weight
    6Average daily gain
    6Eggshell color
    5Breast muscle weight
    5Breast muscle percentage
    4Gizzard weight
    4Blood bile acid level
    4Comb height
    4Triglyceride level
    4Haugh units
    4Blood albumin to globulin ratio
    4Blood globulin level
    4Carcass weight
    4Blood uric acid level
    4Eggshell stiffness
    4Heart weight
    3Blood alanine transaminase level
    3HDL cholesterol level
    3Wooden breast
    3Blood aspartate transaminase level
    3HDL/LDL ratio
    3Shank circumference
    3Cholesterol level
    3LDL cholesterol level
    3Blood total protein level
    3Liver percentage
    3Blood creatinine level
    3Blood gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase level
    3Blood albumin level
    3Glucose level
    3AST to ALT ratio
    3White striping
    2Proventriculus weight
    2Yolk color
    2Intramuscular fat percentage
    2Fowl typhoid susceptibility
    2Body weight gain
    2Deep pectoral myopathy
    2Liver fat percentage
    2Meat color L*
    2Meat color b*
    2Drumstick and thigh muscle percentage
    # ReportsGoat Traits
    3Body weight
    2Teat number
    # ReportsHorse Traits
    12Insect bite hypersensitivity
    12Recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis
    8Tendon injury
    8Recurrent uveitis
    7Bone fracture
    5Strongyle fecal egg count
    4Suspensory ligament injury
    4Withers height
    3Strongyle infection
    3Sperm progressive motility
    2Sperm count
    2Skinfold thickness
    2Walk score
    2Hair shaft diameter
    2Hoof conformation
    2Semen volume
    2Sperm concentration
    2Body condition score
    2Croup height
    2Conformation score
    2chronic progressive lymphedema
    2Trot score
    2Equine sarcoids
    2Gestation length
    2Leg conformation
    1Leptin level
    1Plasma protein level
    1Blood lactate level
    1Aspartate aminotransferase activity
    1Blood glucose level
    1neuroaxonal dystrophy
    1Blood creatinine level
    1ACTH level
    1Lymphocyte number
    1Red blood cell number
    1Creatine kinase level
    1Insulin level
    1White blood cell number
    1Triglyceride level
    1Blood adiponectin level
    1Neutrophil number
    1Chest circumference
    1Cannon bone circumference
    1Uric acid level
    1Number of progressively motile sperm
    1Blood non-esterified fatty acid level
    1hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia
    1Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy
    1Lactate dehydrogenase level
    # ReportsPig Traits
    126Total number born alive
    73Litter size
    55Average backfat thickness
    53Average daily gain
    51Number weaned
    30Litter weight, total
    23Number of stillborn
    23Muscle pH
    22Feed conversion ratio
    21Body weight
    20Sperm abnormality rate
    19Linoleic acid content
    19Oleic acid content
    19Palmitic acid content
    19Stearic acid content
    18Loin muscle area
    18Sperm motility
    18Teat number
    18Palmitoleic acid content
    17Days to 100 kg
    17Myristic acid content
    17Meat color L*
    16Polyunsaturated fatty acid content
    16Saturated fatty acid content
    16Monounsaturated fatty acid content
    15Intramuscular fat content
    15Number of mummified pigs
    15Residual feed intake
    14Semen volume
    14Daily feed intake
    14Sperm concentration
    14Lean meat percentage
    12Sperm per ejaculate
    12Loin muscle depth
    12Meat color b*
    12Meat color a*
    12Linolenic acid content
    12Carcass weight (hot)
    11Sperm progressive motility
    11Subcutaneous fat thickness
    11Meat color score
    10Eicosadienoic acid content
    10Arachidonic acid content
    10Arachidic acid content
    9Drip loss
    9Time in feeder per day
    9cis-11-Eicosenoic acid content
    9Number of visits to feeder per day
    9Carcass length
    8Omega-6 fatty acid content
    8Omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio
    8Average feeding rate
    8Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid content
    8Time in feeder per visit
    8Feed intake per feeding
    8Omega-3 fatty acid content
    8Age at first farrowing
    # ReportsSheep Traits
    63Body weight
    38Average daily gain
    21Kleiber ratio
    18Residual feed intake
    17Feed conversion ratio
    8Mean fiber diameter
    8Greasy fleece weight
    7Sperm motility
    7Staple length
    6Sperm concentration
    6Somatic cell score
    6Semen volume
    5Fecal egg count
    5Backfat at 12th/13th ribs
    5Fiber diameter coefficient of variance
    5Longissimus muscle depth
    5Longissimus muscle area
    5Milk Yield
    5Fleece yield
    4Teat size
    4udder attachment
    4Dressing percentage
    4udder depth
    4Teat placement
    3Fiber diameter standard deviation
    3Clean fleece weight
    3Hot carcass weight
    3Staple strength
    3Feed intake
    2Longissimus muscle width
    2Fiber curvature
    2Backfat at GR site
    2Milk protein yield
    2Nematodirus FEC
    2Milk protein percentage
    2Milk fat yield
    2Subcutaneous fat thickness
    1Number of visits to feeder per day
    1Milk protein content
    1Hind leg bone weight
    1Topside weight
    1Breech wrinkle
    1Meat saturated fatty acid content
    1Meat linoleic acid content
    1Cooking loss
    1Wool crimp
    1Time in feeder per visit
    1Loin fat weight
    1Meat omega-3 fatty acid content
    1Tail length
    1Feed intake per feeding
    1Meat linolenic acid content
    1Blood alpha-1 globulin level
    1Longissimus muscle weight
    1Weaning age
    1Horn circumference
    New Data: If you found correlation data that has not been included in the current release, please either (1) register for a curator account to directly input them (see "Database Curators / Editors" below), or (2) inform our Bioinformatics Team so that we can include your data for curation.
    Database Curators / Editors: The CorrDB is open to the public for data entry and update. By having a curator account on the CorrDB, you will be granted privileges to input and edit the database entries.
    Questions and Answers: Frequently asked questions and answers to address the questions raised with regard to the design, usage, application, utilities, new developments, and other related issues in the development of CorrDB.
    Data downloads:
    Release 18 data:
    ‣ tab delimited
    ‣ plain text
    ‣ gzip compressed
    Correlation data: Cattle
    Correlation data: Chicken
    Correlation data: Goat
    Correlation data: Horse
    Correlation data: Pig
    Correlation data: Sheep
    Heritability data: Cattle
    Heritability data: Chicken
    Heritability data: Goat
    Heritability data: Horse
    Heritability data: Pig
    Heritability data: Sheep


    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2022). Bringing the Animal QTLdb and CorrDB into the future: meeting new challenges and providing updated services. Nucleic Acids Research, Volume 50, Issue D1, Pages D956–D961. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkab1116

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2020). An Update on Database Growth and Improvements of Animal QTLdb and CorrDB. Plant & Animal Genomes XXVII Conference, January 11-15, 2020. Town & Country Convention Center, San Diego, CA. (January 11-15, 2020).

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2019). Building a livestock genetic and genomic information knowledgebase through integrative developments of Animal QTLdb and CorrDB. Nucleic Acids Research, Volume 47, Issue D1, 8 January 2019, Pages D701–D710. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gky1084

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2018). Development of Animal QTLdb and CorrDB: Resynthesizing Big Data to Improve Meta-analysis of Genetic and Genomic Information. The 11th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (WCGALP). New Zealand, February 11-16, 2018.

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Carissa A. Park, and James M. Reecy (2018). Animal QTLdb and CorrDB updates: integrative development of genetics/genomics databases and tools to meet new challenges. Plant & Animal Genomes XXVI Conference, January 13-17, 2018. Town & Country Convention Center, San Diego, CA.

    Zhi-Liang Hu, Dinesh Kumar, and James Reecy. (2013). CorrDB: A livestock animal genetic/phenotypic trait correlation database. Plant & Animal Genomes XX Conference, January 11-16, 2013. Town & Country Convention Center, San Diego, CA.|/icons/links/PAG_logo.png|2

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